Education by Design
|Beyond their sustainability, green schools are better learning environments.|
In 1998, the U.S. Green Building Council established the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Green Building Rating System, which certifies and grades new building projects according to their level of sustainability. Last spring, the USGBC officially launched LEED for Schools, which was tailored to meet the specific needs of K through 12 classrooms and to provide a barometer for better building performance. Right now, 300 schools are on the waiting list for certification-a telling measure of the movement's rapid growth.The movement began on a small scale, with only a few schools willing to take a chance on a new vision: investing in education by paying attention to its physical infrastructure. Drawing on a tradition of sustainable design that dates back to the 1980s, architecture firms started reshaping school planning, one campus at a time.Clackamas also has an energy-monitoring-and-control system that measures outdoor and indoor temperatures and CO2 levels to determine which rooms to heat and cool.
On the West Coast, Boora Architects, which is based in Portland, Oregon, paved the way with the first LEED-certified, K through 12 project, a high school in the Portland suburb of Clackamas. It rigged an innovative lighting system to provide natural daylight to 90 percent of the school. To control the distribution of light, the principal architect, Heinz Rudolf, explains, "We used light scoops to collect sunlight through translucent windows and skylights in upper areas of classroom wings. The daylight is then transferred to adjacent spaces via clerestory windows" and to lower floors via mirrored tubes that move light down from the roof. This substantially reduced the need for artificial lighting. "In turn," Rudolf says, "it decreases the heat load and energy costs of electric lights." Clackamas also has an energy-monitoring-and-control system that measures outdoor and indoor temperatures and CO2 levels to determine which rooms to heat or cool. In all, the planning has saved the school an average of $70,000 per year in energy costs.Meanwhile, in Minneapolis, Minnesota, the Cuningham Group was making impressive breakthroughs with the city's Interdistrict Downtown School. The architects used local, renewable wheat board in the furnishings, water-based paints and finishes, and recycled tile in the bathrooms, then integrated a solar heating "wall" that warms fresh air as it enters the school, reducing the energy needed to heat the building during the brutal Minnesota winters. Cuningham also capitalized on existing community resources-an important tenet of high-performance design. "Creating great schools is about creating great places to learn, places rooted in the culture of the people they serve," explains Cuningham's president, Tim Dufault. "For a school to truly be sustainable, it has to grow from its community." And this school certainly did grow. Cuningham used the district's steam system as the primary heat source for the facility, eliminating the need for an additional boiler. The firm also helped the school establish partnerships with downtown organizations, including the YMCA (which provided gym space), the main public library (books), local theaters (performance space), and a private music school (band and orchestra programs). "By creating these partnerships," says Dufault, "we didn't need to invest resources in facilities that were already available." The school positioned itself firmly within the community, and the community embraced the energy students gave back.Kobet, who chaired the committee that drafted LEED, agrees: "Schools used to be the fabric of community. We can't avoid returning to that." High-performance schools will reconnect us to that idea, Kobet says. "They are a catalyst for bringing back the concept of lifelong learning-sharing the swimming pool, getting adults back onto campus." That means building facilities that not only depend on their community's resources but also create new ones. Kobet recently advised the Olympic planning committee in Beijing on a mixed-use building that will serve athletes during the 2008 summer games; afterward, it will become a community center that houses a school. "It will be central to the community," says Kobet, "an essential part of the entirely green village."Interdistrict integrates into the community and takes advantage of local resources by partnering with the YMCA (gym space), the main public library (books), local theaters (performance space), and a private music school (band and orchestra programs).
Boora Architects sees a similar future for the United States. "The buildings we are planning will serve students well into the next century," says Rudolf. "They will be flexible and change, staying open 24 hours a day. Schools will serve as community centers with overlapping functions: they'll have teleconferencing centers where the elderly can also learn to check their email."The logic is that understanding one's place in the larger community-learning how to both provide and use local resources in a responsible way-helps students see that their individual actions have a far-reaching impact. This is further enforced by fostering an awareness of one's immediate surroundings through a curriculum tied directly to school buildings. "Environmental education has always been about the natural world," says Kobet. When you learn about the environment, you learn about the outdoors-wildlife, weather, the life cycle of a tree. But, oddly, little connection is made to the man-made world, which often affects the environment in much more lasting ways than the changing seasons. In a country where buildings alone account for 48 percent of carbon dioxide emissions, human influence becomes a crucial factor to integrate into an understanding of the "natural" world. The issue becomes how to best teach about this overlap.
|Schools used to be the fabric of community. We can't avoid returning to that.|
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