Indonesia, with a population of approximately 237 million, is the fourth most populous nation in the world, after China, India, and the United States. With more than 13,000 islands, 42 terrestrial ecosystems, 5 unique ecosystems, and a rich 81,000-kilometer coastline, Indonesia is a country with remarkable wealth and diversity of nature and culture.
Observing its geographic location, as well as the population, Indonesia is very vulnerable to rising sea levels and floods, while erratic weather patterns have the potential to impact agricultural and fishery production—the livelihood of many communities. At the same time, Indonesia is a contributor to global emissions of greenhouse gases, mostly through the land use, land use change and forestry sectors followed by energy, peat fire-related emissions, and waste, both agricultural and industry.
During recent years, climate change has emerged as a major threat influencing the country’s development growth.
Climate change consideration has been integrated into a national development strategy, with goals that are pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor, and pro-environment.
In terms of climate change mitigation, Indonesia is committed to reducing emissions by 26 percent from the "business as usual" development scenario by 2020, through utilization of its own funds and without sacrificing development in other sectors, or by 41 percent with international assistance. The government expects to accomplish this while aiming for 7 percent annual economic growth. To fulfill this commitment, the government has issued presidential regulations concerning the National Action Plan for Reduction of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and the Implementation of a National Greenhouse Gases Inventory.
The Indonesian government is currently preparing for the National Action Plan for Climate Change Adaptation, which will provide the strategies, programs, and actions on climate change adaptation.
Applying local wisdom, traditional knowledge, and religious teachings and philosophies could prove an effective method to engage, and at least sensitize, communities.
An awareness survey by the Indonesian National Council on Climate Change carried out simultaneously with interactive dialogues, reaching a total of 3,500 respondents, showed that the general public views climate change and its impacts as a shared responsibility of all components of society. Communities showed a willingness to participate in implementing various efforts in the framework of the national action plan for greenhouse gas emissions reduction. Furthermore, the general public considers the importance of various forms of individual actions that can be done to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
A database of information on climate change adaptation in Indonesia, compiled by the National Council on Climate Change, shows the role that the government, civil society, and the private sector play in planning and implementing effective adaptation programs.
Indonesia has undertaken substantial efforts in climate change education, training, and public awareness, both by the government and other stakeholders such as academia and civil society. As such, a strong, multi-stakeholder's participation in addressing the impacts of climate change is of utmost importance to Indonesia.