West Africans Attribute Soccer Success To Controversial Methods Of Performance Enhancement

'Juju' and 'jars': How African athletes challenge Western notions of doping

The International Olympic Committee has expanded the power of World Anti-Doping Agency, making it a central authority in the “fight against cheating.” WADA defines doping as the use of prohibited substances and methods designed to enhance athletic performance.

But are prohibited substances defined only by their chemical makeup? Not according to West African athletes, many of whom take spiritual methods to enhance their performances very seriously.

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