When the battle ends and the dust settles, the remnants of war remain: empty gun casings, exploded ordnance, fragments from the Berlin Wall. Forrest Curran has travelled from China to Germany to India collecting these remnants, formerly the weapons of conflict. They will comprise the raw materials for his jewelry collection, the Purple Buddha Project. Every piece is manufactured in Cambodia by local artisans who, Curran says, receive fair wages for their labor. Cambodia is a particularly significant location for his project—historically, it’s one of the most heavily bombed countries in the world.
Siev Phalla and her family are wholly dependent on the fields around her house, where her family grows rice and vegetables to eat and sell at nearby markets. They also use the area around these fields as a toilet, a practice that is widespread among the 75 percent of Cambodians who live off their land and, according to emerging research, a major contributor to the high rates of malnourishment and slow growth that continue to plague millions of children here.
When Phalla, 47, her husband, or one of their seven children need to relieve themselves, they find a spot on the edge of their land in rural Pursat province, dig a hole, do their business, and cover it up with a thin layer of dirt. For years NGOs here have been trying to convince the 66 percent of rural dwellers who continue to openly defecate outdoors that toilets are a worthwhile investment, but their work has recently taken on greater importance as a crucial part of wider efforts to raise healthier and smarter children.
A few thousand kilometers away in India, Dean Spears, a PhD candidate at Princeton University, has published some compelling findings that show a strong link between sanitation practices and levels of stunting among populations that defecate outdoors. Spears writes, in a research paper on the subject, that the links between sanitation and stunting “suggest that open defecation is a policy priority of first-order importance.”
When people poop outdoors, the particles find their way into water sources and are spread onto food by flies or tracked into the home by humans and animals. Exposure to these fecal germs over time causes intestinal diseases that create small holes in a child’s digestive organs, meaning that much of the food going into their bodies is lost on the way down and the body is unable to turn it into the energy their bodies need to develop.
Spears’ research is a game-changer in Cambodia. “If more people in Cambodia were safely disposing of feces, then children could grow not only taller, but also healthier and smarter, into more productive adults. This is because the same early life health that helps children grow tall also helps their brains grow smart,” Spears wrote in an email.
Susan B. Anthony once said, "I think [the bicycle] has done more to emancipate women than anything else in the world. It gives a woman a feeling of freedom and self-reliance. The moment she takes her seat she knows she can't get into harm unless she gets off her bicycle, and away she goes, the picture of free, untrammeled womanhood."