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How Reindeer Inspired a Sustainable Business Revolution

A story in The Ecology of Commerce prompted Ray Anderson to make his carpet company zero-waste.



Ray Anderson, who died Monday of cancer, made his name as a leader in sustainable business, but he wasn't always an environmentalist. Anderson started his company, Interface Inc., in the 1970s to sell “modular carpeting”—squares of carpet that could be customized to particular spaces. Modern, durable carpets are made from synthetic materials manufactured from petrochemicals, like nylon, polyester, and acrylic, and Anderson later called Interface “a company so oil-intensive you could think of it as an extension of the petrochemical industry.”

That began to change in the early 1990s, when Anderson set Interface on track to what he would call “Mission Zero”: an effort to eliminate “any negative impact” on the environment by 2020. The company began recycling materials used to make the petrochemical-derived fibers in its carpet squares, using renewable energy at its factories, selling carbon-neutral carpet, and reducing waste across its business.

The idea was considered revolutionary in the business world, but it was directly inspired by Paul Hawken's 1993 book The Ecology of Commerce. Hawken had led two companies, natural foods wholesaler Erewhon Trading Company and gardening retailer Smith & Hawken, before writing the book. But despite Hawken's high profile and two previously-published business books, The Ecology of Commerce was unpopular with the business press, which wasn’t yet interested in discussing how to make companies more sustainable.

When Anderson picked up the book, “I’d never heard of Paul Hawken,“ he wrote later. “To me ecology was just a source for raw materials and the place to (legally) flush our wastes; ecology, nature was just a component of a larger entity—the economy.”

Hawken’s book argued that companies should aim to reduce both their carbon emissions and the amount of natural resources they drew from nature. He wrote that “our business practices are destroying life on earth” but also that company executives were right, in some cases, to suspect that “doing the right thing might put them out of business.” The answer, he concluded, was for the business community to find its own way to sustainability instead of reluctantly following government regulations.

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What Do the World's Most Romantic Cities Have in Common?

We love—and fall in love in—cities that engender the main elements of smart, sustainable urbanism.


Kaid Benfield, Sustainable Cities and Smart Growth Director for the NRDC, answers this question in his annual Valentine's Day must-read post on the intersection of smart, sustainable urbanism, livable streets, and romance:

Prague. Venice. Rome. Paris. These are some destinations that perennially make "ten-most-romantic cities” lists. I just looked at three such sites, and all four cities were consensus picks. Vienna and Lisbon each made two of the lists.

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