A Brief History

From the earliest cave sketch to the latest MoMa escapade.

15,000 B.C.First known form of graffiti: cave paintings in Lascaux, France.1535–1541Michelangelo, while working on the Sistine Chapel, subverts the work by putting patrons' faces on the damned. He also depicts genitals, which are later covered up by Daniele da Volterra, "The Breeches Maker."1773Boston Tea Party. This direct action protest puts "Buy Nothing Day" to shame.1800Francisco de Goya y Lucientes paints "The Family of Charles IV"-controversial because none of the people are made to look attractive. Rather, he paints them as unattractive as they actually appear.1890sWheatpaste is widely used as an adhesive for posters, especially posters of Toulouse-Lautrec paintings. The paintings are so popular and so frequently torn down that they come with instructions on how to remove them without ripping them.1916–1920Peak era of the Dada movement.1938Orson Welles' "War of the Worlds" is broadcast, convincing many listeners that an actual Martian invasion is underway.1949Edward H. Seymour, on the suggestion of his wife, Bonnie, invents the modern aerosol spraypaint can in Chicago, Illinois.1957The Situationist International (rooted in Marxism) forms in the Italian village of Cosio d'Arroscia. Guy Debord is the most prominent French member.1960Jørgen Nash and Asger Jorn form the Situationist Bauhaus.1966–1971The first modern graffiti artists, "Cool Earl" and "Cornbread," begin work in Philadelphia.1968In May, students in Paris occupy the Ecole des Beaux Arts to produce posters that "give concrete support to the great movement of the workers on strike."1969John Lennon and Yoko Ono spend their honeymoon in Amsterdam in bed, performing their "bed-in" in the name of peace.1970Abbie Hoffman writes Steal This Book, a manifesto and instruction manual that advises readers on topics like growing marijauna, living in communes, pirating radio signals, stealing food and credit cards, making pipe bombs, and obtaining a free buffalo from the U.S. Department of the Interior.1977Billboard Liberation Front "improves" its first billboard, Max Factor 26.1981Jean Baudrillard publishes Simulacra and Simulation.1981–1983Parisian Blek le Rat begins a stencil street-art campaign (the stencils being a means of differentiating himself from New York graffiti artists).1982Jay Conrad Livingston writes Guerrilla Marketing.1985Negativland coins the phrase "Culture Jamming" on the collective record JAMCON '84.1989Shepard Fairey begins the OBEY GIANT campaign, what he calls "an experiment in phenomenology," and it proves to be just that: 13 arrests and 17 years later, his is the most recognizablestreet-art campaign in history.Barbie Liberation Organization is formed. Thanks to similarities in the vocal hardware of Teen Talk Barbie and the Talking Duke G.I. Joe, BLO is able to swap the voice boxes of the toys.1989Adbusters launches.1991Negativland releases fake U2 single by sampling parts of U2 songs. U2 sues (and, ironically, later uses many samples on their POP tour).1992Members of Negativland conduct an (ambush) interview with The Edge, who, once they reveal their identities to him, stutters and bumbles his way through the rest of the interview, claiming U2's label (not the band) pursued the lawsuit.1994Justin Hall creates his "Links from the Underground," the internet's first self-published home page, for which the New York Times Magazine later hails him as "the father of personal blogging."1997The Activist Cookbook: Creative Actions for a Fair Economy, by Andrew Boyd, is published.1999The Yes Men create in preparation for the 2000 presidential election. Bush, when asked about the defamatory site, says that the site went too far and that "there ought to be limits on freedom."2001January 5 Jonah Peretti orders a pair of custom Nikes with the word "sweatshop" embroidered on them. Nike refuses. The email dialogue circulates around the internet.January 15Wikipedia launches, inspiring debate about authenticity of and authority over information.2003Bar code artist Peter Coffin starts distributing downloadable, printable bar codes that, once adhered to a product and scanned, display a word ("want," "take," "give," "lose") on the register, instead of a price.2004Adbusters sues six major Canadian broadcasters after they refuse to air "subverstisements" for which Adbusters purchased airtime. This same year it launches the Blackspot Sneaker Campaign.2005Bansky places his works in the Museum of Modern Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Brooklyn Museum, and The American Museum of Natural History.Google Bombing: Yooter reports that "The Presidency of George W. Bush" is the first link that appears for the search "failure" or "miserable failure."Marissa Mayer from Google responds: "We don't condone the practice of Google Bombing, or any other action that seeks to affect the integrity of our search results, but we're also reluctant to alter our results by hand in order to prevent such items from showing up. Pranks like this may be distracting to some, but they don't affect the overall quality of our search service, whose objectivity, as always, remains the core of our mission."
Center for American Progress Action Fund

Tonight's Democratic debate is a must-watch for followers of the 2020 election. And it's a nice distraction from the impeachment inquiry currently enveloping all of the political oxygen in America right now.

For most people, the main draw will be newly anointed frontrunner Pete Buttigieg, who has surprisingly surged to first place in Iowa and suddenly competing in New Hampshire. Will the other Democrats attack him? How will Elizabeth Warren react now that she's no longer sitting alone atop the primary field? After all, part of Buttigieg's rise has been his criticisms of Warren and her refusal to get into budgetary specifics over how she'd pay for her healthcare plan.

The good news is that Joe Biden apparently counts time travel amongst his other resume-building experience.

Keep Reading Show less
Official White House Photo by Sonya N. Hebert

This election cycle, six women threw their hat in the ring for president, but is their gender holding them back? Would Americans feel comfortable with a woman leading the free world? Based on the last election, the answer is a swift no. And a new study backs this up. The study found that only 49% of American men would feel very comfortable with a woman serving as the head of the government. By comparison, 59% of women said they would feel comfortable with a woman in charge.

The Reykjavik Index for Leadership, which measures attitude towards women leaders, evaluated the attitudes of those living in the G7 countries as well as Brazil, China, India, and Russia. 22,000 adults in those 11 countries were surveyed on their attitudes about female leadership in 22 different sectors, including government, fashion, technology, media, banking and finance, education, and childcare.

Only two countries, Canada and the U.K., had a majority of respondents say they would be more comfortable with a female head of state. Germany (which currently has a female Chancellor), Japan, and Russia were the countries least comfortable with a female head of state.

Keep Reading Show less
via Gage Skidmore / Flickr

If you are totally ready to move on from Donald Trump, you're not alone. According to a report last April from the Wason Center National Survey of 2020 Voters, "President Trump will be the least popular president to run for reelection in the history of polling."

Yes, you read that right, "history of polling."

Keep Reading Show less
via Around the NFL / Twitter

After three years on the sidelines, Colin Kapernick will be working out for multiple NFL teams on Saturday, November 16 at the Atlanta Falcons facility.

The former 49er quarterback who inflamed the culture wars by peacefully protesting against social injustice during the national anthem made the announcement on Twitter Tuesday.

Kaepernick is scheduled for a 15-minute on-field workout and an interview that will be recorded and sent to all 32 teams. The Miami Dolphins, Dallas Cowboys, and Detroit Lions are expected to have representatives in attendance.

RELATED: Joe Namath Says Colin Kaepernick And Eric Reid Should Be Playing In The NFL

"We like our quarterback situation right now," Miami head coach, Brian Flores said. "We're going to do our due diligence."

NFL Insider Steve Wyche believes that the workout is the NFL's response to multiple teams inquiring about the 32-year-old quarterback. A league-wide workout would help to mitigate any potential political backlash that any one team may face for making an overture to the controversial figure.

Kapernick is an unrestricted free agent (UFA) so any team could have reached out to him. But it's believed that the interested teams are considering him for next season.

RELATED: Video of an Oakland train employee saving a man's life is so insane, it looks like CGI

Earlier this year, Kaepernick and Carolina Panthers safety Eric Reid reached a financial settlement with the league in a joint collusion complaint. The players alleged that the league conspired to keep them out after they began kneeling during the national anthem in 2016.

Before the 2019 season, Kaepernick posted a video of himself working out on twitter to show he was in great physical condition and ready to play.

Kaepnick took the 49ers to the Super Bowl in 2012 and the NFC Championship game in 2013.

He has the 23rd-highest career passer rating in NFL history, the second-best interception rate, and the ninth-most rushing yards per game of any quarterback ever. In 2016, his career to a sharp dive and he won only of 11 games as a starter.