Is Voting Weakening America?

Voting is a foundational right in America, but a new study says it may not be as great as civics class would have you believe.

Beloved British statesman and wordsmith Winston Churchill once quipped that "the greatest argument against democracy is a five-minute conversation with the average voter." At the time, and in the years since Churchill made his bon mot, people have written off the saying as nothing more than a funny quote from a man who himself was democratically elected. But what if Churchill was right?

New research from David Dunning, a psychologist at Cornell, and his NYU colleague, Justin Kruger, says that nations actually flounder when they rely on voters to elect leaders. That's because when people are incompetent, they are unable to accurately judge the competency of others, or the quality of those people's ideas. In other words, an electorate ignorant to reality and facts is going to be unable to choose the best candidates to solve its problems. "[V]ery smart ideas are going to be hard for people to adopt," Dunning told the website Life's Little Mysteries, "because most people don’t have the sophistication to recognize how good an idea is."

Worse still, most people are self-delusional and thus totally blind to their ignorance, the researchers concluded. Dunning and Kruger found that regardless of the tests they gave research subjects—whether assessing correct grammar or the subjects' own performance in a game of chess—people generally rated their own performance as being "above average." Even the people who performed the worst on the tests thought they were better than most. It's this ignorance to one's own ignorance, the researchers say, that leads to weak democratic nations.

In 2010, when Republicans won 60 House seats and six Senate seats in the midterm elections, they did so with the help of a wildly confused nation. In the days leading up to the voting, polling showed that not only did just a fraction of Americans know that President Obama had actually cut their taxes, two-thirds of likely voters believed taxes had gone up, the economy had shrunk, and that the billions lent to banks through the Troubled Asset Relief Program wouldn't be recovered. None of that was true, of course, but that didn't stop people from going to the polls thinking it was.

Though many Americans fail to exercise them, voting rights are considered a cornerstone of the nation's mystique. As Alexander Hamilton once wrote, "a share in the sovereignty of the state, which is exercised by the citizens at large, in voting at elections is one of the most important rights of the subject." But if voting can exalt a nation, it can cripple it as well. Seventy years after Hamilton died, James Garfield wrote in The Atlantic, "Now more than ever the people are responsible for the character of their Congress. If that body be ignorant, reckless, and corrupt, it is because the people tolerate ignorance, recklessness, and corruption."

Right now, Congress and other elected leaders around the country are more radical, incompetent, sluggish, and beholden to corporate interests than they've ever been before. There are concerted efforts to strip deeply important reproductive rights from women, a hearty energy policy is nonexistent, and Rick Santorum, a leading GOP candidate for president, was recently quoted as saying that birth control is "a license to do things in the sexual realm that is counter to how things are supposed to be." It's not the case that voting is the sole reason for America's current dysfunction. But voting is the mechanism by which ignorant people put other ignorant people with bad ideas into powerful positions in the U.S. government.

Piggybacking off Dunning and Kruger's research, a German sociologist named Mato Nagel put together a computer simulation of a democratic election. He wanted to see what sort of leader is likely to be picked if a nation relies on voting. Nagel's model assumed that some leaders were excellent and others were terrible, but that most were just so-so. It also assumed that, as Dunning and Kruger argue, each voter was unable to recognize the competence and leadership of others as being superior to his own. When Nagel ran his model, the result was always the same: Only candidates whose skills were slightly better than the average person's won. The best and worst leaders lost every time, leading Nagel to conclude that the only truly good thing to come out of democratic elections is that it keeps the worst of the worst people out of office.

Consider, for instance, a world in which, instead of voting on politicians who accept huge donations from oil companies, America installed well-established climate scientists to figure out environmental policy. And what if, instead of holding pointless all-male congressional hearings on contraception, serious and respected physicians were given the power to enact laws concerning birth control and reproductive rights? What a world that would be. One in which decision-making power about important scientific matters was taken out of the hands of the average Joe and given to, you know, scientists and scholars.

The only problem with a world like that is one Dunning and Kruger can't solve: How would we go about picking the smart people to run everything? Maybe we could leave it up to a vote.

Photo via (cc) Flickr user hjl

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The problem with American Sign Language (ASL) is that over 500,000 people in the U.S. use it, but the country has over 330 million people.

So for those with hearing loss, the chances of coming into contact with someone who uses the language are rare. Especially outside of the deaf community.

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Looking back, the year 1995 seems like such an innocent time. America was in the midst of its longest streak of peace and prosperity. September 11, 2001 was six years away, and the internet didn't seem like much more than a passing fad.

Twenty-four years ago, 18 million U.S. homes had modem-equipped computers, 7 million more than the year before. Most logged in through America Online where they got their email or communicated with random strangers in chat rooms.

According to a Pew Research study that year, only 32% of those who go online say they would miss it "a lot" if no longer available.

Imagine what those poll numbers would look like if the question was asked today.

RELATED: Bill and Melinda Gates had a surprising answer when asked about a 70 percent tax on the wealthiest Americans

"Few see online activities as essential to them, and no single online feature, with the exception of E-Mail, is used with any regularity," the Pew article said. "Consumers have yet to begin purchasing goods and services online, and there is little indication that online news features are changing traditional news consumption patterns."

"Late Night" host David Letterman had Microsoft founder and, at that time the richest man in the world, on his show for an interview in '95 to discuss the "the big new thing."

During the interview Letterman chided Gates about the usefulness of the new technology, comparing it to radio and tape recorders.

Gates seems excited by the internet because it will soon allow people to listen to a baseball game on their computer. To which Letterman smugly replies, "Does radio ring a bell?" to laughter from the crowd.

But Gates presses Letterman saying that the new technology allows you to listen to the game "whenever you want," to which Letterman responds, "Do tape recorders ring a bell?"

Gates then tells Letterman he can keep up with the latest in his favorite hobbies such as cigar smoking or race cars through the internet. Letterman shuts him down saying that he reads about his interests in magazines.

RELATED: Bill Gates has five books he thinks you should read this summer.

The discussion ends with the two laughing over meeting like-minded people in "troubled loner chat room on the internet."

The clip brings to mind a 1994 segment on "The Today Show" where host Bryant Gumbel and Katie Couric have a similar discussion.

"What is internet anyway?" an exasperated Gumball asks. "What do you write to it like mail?"

"It's a computer billboard but it's nationwide and it's several universities all joined together and it's getting bigger and bigger all the time," a producer explains from off-stage.

Photo by Li-An Lim on Unsplash

The future generations will have to live on this Earth for years to come, and, not surprisingly, they're very concerned about the fate of our planet. We've seen a rise in youth activists, such as Greta Thunberg, who are raising awareness for climate change. A recent survey indicates that those efforts are working, as more and more Americans (especially young Americans) feel concerned about climate change.

A new CBS News poll found that 70% of Americans between 18 and 29 feel climate change is a crisis or a serious problem, while 58% of Americans over the age of 65 share those beliefs. Additionally, younger generations are more likely to feel like it's their personal responsibility to address climate change, as well as think that transitioning to 100% renewable energy is viable. Overall, 25% of Americans feel that climate change is a "crisis," and 35% feel it is a "serious problem." 10% of Americans said they think climate change is a minor problem, and 16% of Americans feel it is not a problem that worries them.

The poll found that concern for the environment isn't a partisan issue – or at least when it comes to younger generations. Two-thirds of Republicans under the age of 45 feel that addressing climate change is their duty, sentiments shared by only 38% of Republicans over the age of 45.

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