Six Things Education Can Learn From Neuroscience

We can point to six findings that give us new and profound insight into our grey matter.

Neuroscience studies a very complex system: the brain. Much has been learned through formal research of the brain, especially due to the advent of brain imaging technologies which afford increased breadth of research using human subjects. That said, what we know remains very limited, given the complexities of both the organ and the practical application of research findings.

However, we can point to six findings that give us new and profound insight into our grey matter.

1. Memory is not unitary from either a behavioral or neuroanatomical standpoint. [Squire, L. R. (1992)].p

There exist multiple memory systems within the brain—neuroscientists have actually known this part for a while, but they didn’t know precisely what it meant. Turns out, the different systems warrant different methodologies for optimal development. Explicit memories, those that can be verbally described, benefit from rehearsal, organization, elaboration, and additional cues such as keywords. Implicit memories are unconscious and cannot be articulated, but impact behavior through “priming.” Implicit memories benefit most from rehearsal and dual-coding (exposure to multiple stimuli).

2. Explicit and implicit memory systems are potentially both necessary for optimal memory and learning performance. [Wu, D. W. L. 2011].

Historically it was thought that the two types of memory merely competed with each other to form the basis of “habit learning.” More recent studies suggest that the explicit and implicit memory systems collaborate to produce optimal performance on memory tasks.

3. Testing and retrieval practice both enhance learning and slow down forgetting.

Rote memorization is often referred to as “drill-and-kill”—and while such methodology, when employed in a punitive fashion, indisputably depresses learner motivation, the amount of retrieval practice itself has been demonstrated to be in direct relation to both an increase in the speed of learning [Karpicke & Blunt, 2011] as well as a decrease in the rate of forgetting [Roediger & Karpicke 2006].

4. Practice under distracting conditions benefits implicit memory development and optimizes learning. [Lin, Knowlton, Chiang, Iacoboni, Udompholkul, & Wu, 2011].

This finding flies in the face of a “avoid any and all distractions” approach to education. The notion of "desirable difficulties" asserts that with certain forms of learning, “contextual interference” during study results in robust benefits.

5. Exercise of competing memory systems can be modulated by distraction. [Foerde, Knowlton, & Poldrack 2006].

Using dual-task methods the implicit memory system may be targeted and the explicit memory system de-emphasized. For certain learning objectives this phenomenon may prove invaluable.

The sixth and final finding: The exercise of conscious effortful recall necessary for explicit memory physically tires the brain. [Rock, 2009].

Blood oxygen and glucose levels in the temporal lobe, the area of the brain utilized for effortful cognition, decrease noticeably with use and result in the subjective feeling of being “tired of thinking.”

The above findings can individually be used to improve educational methodologies and outcomes. I propose one specific methodology that brings all six together in a novel memory development game. I’ve called it Know-It-All , and it intends to deliver faster memory development and decreased rates of forgetting by using distraction to target the implicit memory system with fun, not tiring, brain exercise. Users will be able to play longer, and that increased “rehearsal” time will result in increased memory and retention.

Visit my Kickstarter page for more information on Know-It-All.

Image from (cc) flickr user brewbooks

via Douglas Muth / Flickr

Sin City is doing something good for its less fortunate citizens as well as those who've broken the law this month. The city of Las Vegas, Nevada will drop any parking ticket fines for those who make a donation to a local food bank.

A parking ticket can cost up to $100 in Las Vegas but the whole thing can be forgiven by bringing in non-perishable food items of equal or greater value to the Parking Services Offices at 500 S. Main Street through December 16.

The program is designed to help the less fortunate during the holidays.

Keep Reading Show less

For more than 20 years. Sen. Susan Collins (R-ME) has served the citizens of Maine in the U.S. Senate. For most of that time, she has enjoyed a hard-fought reputation as a moderate Republican who methodically builds bridges and consensus in an era of political polarization. To millions of political observers, she exemplified the best of post-partisan leadership, finding a "third way" through the static of ideological tribalism.

However, all of that has changed since the election of Donald Trump in 2016. Voters in Maine, particularly those who lean left, have run out of patience with Collins and her seeming refusal to stand up to Trump. That frustration peaked with the nomination of Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court.

Keep Reading Show less
via / Flickr and Dimitri Rodriguez / Flickr

Bernie Sanders' presidential campaign looks to be getting a huge big shot in the arm after it's faced some difficulties over the past few weeks.

Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, a leading voice in the Democratic parties progressive, Democratic Socialist wing, is expected to endorse Sanders' campaign at the "Bernie's Back" rally in Queens, New York this Saturday.

Fellow member of "the Squad," Ilhan Omar, endorsed him on Wednesday.

Keep Reading Show less
Photo by HAL9001 on Unsplash

The U.K. is trying to reach its goal of net-zero emissions by 2050, but aviation may become the biggest source of greenhouse gas emissions in the U.K. by that same year. A new study commissioned by the Committee on Climate Change (CCC) and conducted at the Imperial College London says that in order for the U.K. to reach its target, aviation can only see a 25% increase, and they've got a very specific recommendation on how to fix it: Curb frequent flyer programs.

Currently, air travel accounts for 2% of global greenhouse gas emissions, however that number is projected to increase for several reasons. There's a growing demand for air travel, yet it's harder to decarbonize aviation. Electric cars are becoming more common. Electric planes, not so much. If things keep on going the way they are, flights in the U.K. should increase by 50%.

Nearly every airline in the world has a frequent flyer program. The programs offer perks, including free flights, if customers get a certain amount of points. According to the study, 70% of all flights from the U.K. are taken by 15% of the population, with many people taking additional (and arguably unnecessary) flights to "maintain their privileged traveler status."

Keep Reading Show less
The Planet