Memories Of Bloody Coup Still Haunt National Soccer Stadium

General Augusto Pinochet's long shadow still hangs over Chile’s Estadio Nacional

A decade after General Augusto Pinochet died, Chileans still feel the legacy of his regime and its horrific actions on a daily basis—and perhaps nowhere more tangibly than in soccer. Despite the celebrations that marked Chile’s victory in the Copa América Centenario in June 2016, soccer is still a highly sensitive area of Chilean culture. At the heart of it all is the country’s national stadium, the Estadio Nacional, in Santiago.

The morning after the bloody 1973 coup that brought Pinochet to power and left democratically elected president Salvador Allende dead, tens of thousands of Allende’s supporters were detained by the military, first in another sports stadium, the Estadio Chile, and other centers in the capital. (Among those held was singer-songwriter Víctor Jara, after whom the venue was eventually renamed.)

One of the entrances to the National Stadium. (David Wood)

Within days, thousands of these detainees were transferred to the Estadio Nacional. It is estimated that a week later there were 7,000 prisoners being held there, including around 250 non-Chilean nationals. Over the course of the next three months, some 40,000 men and women were imprisoned. Some of them were tortured and executed.

When democracy returned to Chile in 1990, the government launched a commission to investigate the human rights abuses of the Pinochet era. Its report published details of more than 2,500 deaths and disappearances that resulted from political violence under the regime and described the Estadio Nacional and the Estadio Chile as “the most notorious detention centers in the capital.”

Above the heads of the Argentinean players (left), the empty section of the stands. (Emol.deportes)

Today, when players line up in the stadium at the start of a game, a section of the stands remains empty, bearing the words “Un pueblo sin memoria es un pueblo sin futuro”—a people with no memory is a people with no future. And alongside these public memorials, a lot of work has gone into commemorating and dealing with the stadium’s horrific associations.

Reclaiming the stadium

Chile’s first democratically elected president, Patricio Aylwin, chose the Estadio Nacional to deliver his highly symbolic speech marking the country’s return to civilian government. And just ahead of the 30th anniversary of Pinochet’s coup, Carmen Luz Parot’s excellent documentary Estadio Nacional featured interviews with some of those who were detained there. A decade later, Amnesty International Chile devised a campaign around the national team’s 2013 World Cup qualifier against Venezuela. Under the banner Gol de Silencio, they asked players and supporters not to celebrate the anticipated first Chilean goal.

In the event, Chile won the game comfortably and the first goal was cheered as usual, but the campaign nonetheless generated considerable debate around the stadium’s connection with the Pinochet era.

Around the same time, a local human rights group started the website Estadio Nacional, Memoria Nacional, through which it works to educate Chileans about what happened in the stadium in 1973. Run by a handful of the thousands who suffered detention and torture at the hands of the military, this small grassroots organization leads visits around the stadium every Saturday morning and works with local schools to help victims tell their stories.

Names and nationalities of non-Chileans detained in the National Stadium in 1973. (David Wood)

I myself recently visited the stadium, joining a tour mostly composed of Chileans whose family members had been held and tortured in the stadium. We heard how over a hundred men slept in each of the stadium’s changing rooms, constantly fearing being called out for “special” treatment. Women prisoners were kept separately in rooms adjoining the nearby swimming pool, where they suffered equally appalling abuses.

We heard how the prisoners would spend their days on the terraces under the gaze of armed soldiers. One of the ways in which they kept their spirits up was by cheering “goal” as the man cutting the grass passed between the posts. He was preparing the pitch for Chile’s playoff match against the Soviet Union for the final place at the 1974 World Cup. In the end, the Soviet team refused to travel to Chile, despite FIFA’s insistence and assurances that everything in the stadium was “normal.”

Most powerfully of all, we learned of the various torture techniques employed in the “caracola,” the circular toilet block of the adjacent velodrome. Because of its detachment from the stadium and ready supply of water, it was converted into a detention center where the prisoners were tortured.

Stadium survivor José Manuel Méndez inside the ‘caracola,’ a toilet block that’s been left untouched since its days as the stadium’s torture center in 1973. (David Wood)

In 2010, President Michele Bachelet inaugurated Santiago’s excellent Museo de la Memoria y los Derechos Humanos (Museum of Memory and Human Rights), which documents and relates vital personal stories. Among its thousands of pieces, it holds a number of documents, images, and objects connected to the people held in the stadium. It’s a remarkable effort, but the Estadio Nacional visits led by survivors are something else. They offer a unique connection to a physical space, and an uncomfortable contrast to the joyous celebrations it regularly hosts.

It may be that soccer and the national team have broken away from their associations with the Pinochet regime, helped no doubt by the continental successes that signal a new era on the pitch. But the always-empty section behind one of the goals reminds us that the bright present is always attached to a dark past. For the survivors of the Estadio Nacional, their struggle against the ghosts of Pinochet goes on.

Center for American Progress Action Fund

Tonight's Democratic debate is a must-watch for followers of the 2020 election. And it's a nice distraction from the impeachment inquiry currently enveloping all of the political oxygen in America right now.

For most people, the main draw will be newly anointed frontrunner Pete Buttigieg, who has surprisingly surged to first place in Iowa and suddenly competing in New Hampshire. Will the other Democrats attack him? How will Elizabeth Warren react now that she's no longer sitting alone atop the primary field? After all, part of Buttigieg's rise has been his criticisms of Warren and her refusal to get into budgetary specifics over how she'd pay for her healthcare plan.

The good news is that Joe Biden apparently counts time travel amongst his other resume-building experience.

Keep Reading Show less
Official White House Photo by Sonya N. Hebert

This election cycle, six women threw their hat in the ring for president, but is their gender holding them back? Would Americans feel comfortable with a woman leading the free world? Based on the last election, the answer is a swift no. And a new study backs this up. The study found that only 49% of American men would feel very comfortable with a woman serving as the head of the government. By comparison, 59% of women said they would feel comfortable with a woman in charge.

The Reykjavik Index for Leadership, which measures attitude towards women leaders, evaluated the attitudes of those living in the G7 countries as well as Brazil, China, India, and Russia. 22,000 adults in those 11 countries were surveyed on their attitudes about female leadership in 22 different sectors, including government, fashion, technology, media, banking and finance, education, and childcare.

Only two countries, Canada and the U.K., had a majority of respondents say they would be more comfortable with a female head of state. Germany (which currently has a female Chancellor), Japan, and Russia were the countries least comfortable with a female head of state.

Keep Reading Show less
via Gage Skidmore / Flickr

If you are totally ready to move on from Donald Trump, you're not alone. According to a report last April from the Wason Center National Survey of 2020 Voters, "President Trump will be the least popular president to run for reelection in the history of polling."

Yes, you read that right, "history of polling."

Keep Reading Show less
via Around the NFL / Twitter

After three years on the sidelines, Colin Kapernick will be working out for multiple NFL teams on Saturday, November 16 at the Atlanta Falcons facility.

The former 49er quarterback who inflamed the culture wars by peacefully protesting against social injustice during the national anthem made the announcement on Twitter Tuesday.

Kaepernick is scheduled for a 15-minute on-field workout and an interview that will be recorded and sent to all 32 teams. The Miami Dolphins, Dallas Cowboys, and Detroit Lions are expected to have representatives in attendance.

RELATED: Joe Namath Says Colin Kaepernick And Eric Reid Should Be Playing In The NFL

"We like our quarterback situation right now," Miami head coach, Brian Flores said. "We're going to do our due diligence."

NFL Insider Steve Wyche believes that the workout is the NFL's response to multiple teams inquiring about the 32-year-old quarterback. A league-wide workout would help to mitigate any potential political backlash that any one team may face for making an overture to the controversial figure.

Kapernick is an unrestricted free agent (UFA) so any team could have reached out to him. But it's believed that the interested teams are considering him for next season.

RELATED: Video of an Oakland train employee saving a man's life is so insane, it looks like CGI

Earlier this year, Kaepernick and Carolina Panthers safety Eric Reid reached a financial settlement with the league in a joint collusion complaint. The players alleged that the league conspired to keep them out after they began kneeling during the national anthem in 2016.

Before the 2019 season, Kaepernick posted a video of himself working out on twitter to show he was in great physical condition and ready to play.

Kaepnick took the 49ers to the Super Bowl in 2012 and the NFC Championship game in 2013.

He has the 23rd-highest career passer rating in NFL history, the second-best interception rate, and the ninth-most rushing yards per game of any quarterback ever. In 2016, his career to a sharp dive and he won only of 11 games as a starter.